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一代昭度──故宮博物院藏清代帝后服飾 Costumes of Qing Emperors and Empresses from the Collection of the Palace Museum



二零二零年,澳門藝術博物館與故宮博物院的合作已步入第二十一年,今年藝博館計劃與故宮博物院共同主辦 “一代昭度——故宮博物院藏清代帝后服飾” 展,展出故宮博物院藏清代帝后服飾90件套。


“中國有禮儀之大,故稱夏;有服章之美,謂之華。” “華夏”之稱,“中華”之名,即來源於禮儀與衣冠。衣食住行是人類物質生活的基礎,其中的衣冠除蔽體禦寒原始屬性外,又是一個民族最外在的物質文化表徵。歷朝歷代制定了詳盡的禮儀制度與冠服制度,以此明辨等級、昭示權力,作為維護封建王朝統治秩序的重要手段。


清王朝以“騎射為業,弓矢立國”,依靠強大的武力入主中原,所以清代服飾保留了遊獵民族服飾便於騎射的特點,同時吸收了漢民族服飾文化的元素,重新訂立了“辨等威、昭品秩”的冠服制度。清代服飾融會了中華民族幾千年來形成的禮儀制度、宗教信仰與民間習俗,呈現出遊獵與農耕兩種文化交織的特點,並對近代服飾的發展產生了重要影響。


乾隆皇帝在《皇朝禮器圖式》序文中寫道:“衣冠乃一代昭度”,即一代衣冠有一代之式,它是時代最鮮明的外在表徵。此次展覽依據清代典籍記載和故宮博物院所存實物,在反映清代服飾制度的同時,展示服飾的文化內涵與審美趣味。展覽根據服飾功能分為:禮服、吉服、常服、戎服與行服、便服五個部分,以時間為脈絡,將清代不同時期服飾特點融入其中,展示一個時代的衣著禮儀與風尚。



主辦:文化局、澳門藝術博物館、故宮博物院

展覽日期:2020年12月17日 至 2021年3月14日

公開導賞服務日期:2020年12月20日 至 2021年3月14日

(逢星期六、日及公眾假期 下午3時 至 4時; 下午4時15分 至 5時15分 四樓升降機出口處集合)

團體導賞服務日期:2021年1月5日 至 2021年3月14日

地點:澳門藝術博物館4樓

澳門新口岸冼星海大馬路)

開放時間:上午10時 至 下午7時(下午6時30分後停止入場,逢週一休館,公眾假期照常開放)

免費入場


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In 2020, the Macao Museum of Art entered its 21st year of cooperation with the Palace Museum. This year the Macao Museum of Art together with the Palace Museum will co-organise Stately Demeanour: Costumes of Qing Emperors and Empresses from the Collection of the Palace Museum, showcasing 90 sets of costumes and accessories of Qing emperors and empress.


‘China has great rites and social etiquette, thus named itself Xia; China has sophisticated clothing and regulatory system, thus named itself Hua.’ The ancient name of the Chinese nation, Huaxia, originated from the ceremonial etiquette and clothing culture. Clothing, food, shelter and transportation are the basic human necessities. Apart from its original purpose of covering and fortifying oneself against the cold, clothing also serves as the most noticeable element of a nation’s tangible culture. In the past, the system for rites, ceremonies and etiquettes plus the system for costumes were meticulously instituted in different dynasties in order to differentiate people from their status and declare their authority. It was also a crucial means for feudal and imperial governments to reign over and maintain order in their territory.


The Qing dynasty was ‘built using bows and arrows, with horse-riding and archery laying the foundation’. The Qing government occupied the Central Plains with their military might, which can explain why they retained the characteristic clothing and adornments of hunting nomads for easy horse-riding and shooting, while also absorbing elements from Han people’s clothing and culture. A new clothing system was therefore established to ‘distinguish people’s ranks and reveal their positions and achievements’. Costumes of the Qing dynasty feature an integration of the Chinese nation’s heritage formed over thousands of years, such as the ritual and etiquette system, religious beliefs, traditions and customs, and a blend of hunting and farming cultures, exerting great influence on the development of modern clothing.


Emperor Qianlong wrote on the preface of the Illustrated Regulations for Ceremonial Paraphernalia of the Qing Dynasty that ‘clothing is the manifestation of a dynasty’, which means each dynasty has its own costume design and they are the most notable, visible characteristics of an era. This exhibition is based on the records from books dating back to the Qing dynasty and the original items collected by the Palace Museum, reflecting the clothing system of that period and showcasing the culture and aesthetics behind the costumes. The exhibition is divided into five sections according to the functions of the apparel: official costumes, festive costumes, regular costumes, military and travel costumes, and leisure costumes, integrating their features in different periods of the Qing dynasty across the axis of time to showcase the clothing etiquette and fashion trend of the era.



Organizers: Cultural Affairs Bureau, Macao Museum of Art, Palace Museum

Date: 2020-12-17 to 2021-03-14

Dates of Guided Tour for Public: 2020-12-20 to 2021-03-14

(Sat, Sun & Public Holiday 3pm - 4pm; 4:15pm - 5:15pm, meeting at 4th floor lift exit)

Dates of Guided Tour for Group: 2021-01-05 to 2021-03-14

Venue: 4/F, Macao Museum of Art (Av. Xian Xing Hai, Macao)

Opening Hours: 10am to 7pm (Last admission at 6:30pm, closed on Mondays, open on public holidays)

Free Admission

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