a.m. post

a.m. post 116期
分類:2015
上層分類:a.m. post

a.m. post 09/10 2015 116

content

spot-departing/ 004-012

columns/
Academic: ir. Gerhard Bruyns 013-015
Architecture: William Lim 016-017

interview/
Claudio Parmiggiani 018-020
Kingsley Ng 021-023
Lewis Lau 024-026

feature/
Reading Venice Biennale2015
閱讀2015年威尼斯雙年展 027

The Humanity Landscape in Working Class
勞動階層中的人文景觀 028-32

Venice Biennale — An Alchemy of Capitalism
威尼斯雙年展—一座資本主義的煉金場 033-035

Seleted National Pavilions
國家館精選 036-037

Seleted Collateral Events
平行展精選 038-041

Special Reports
特別報導 042-045

issue/
以藝術之名—香港當代藝術展 046-047

吳趙風流 048

The Positioning of Ink in the Contemporary Art Scene
當代藝術中水墨的定位 050-051

Ink as the Emerging Totem of ‘New China’
An Analysis of the Chinese Modern and Contemporary Ink Market
「水墨」作為「新中國」揚升的圖騰
華人近代及現當代水墨藝術市場剖析 052-053

Fine Art Asia 2015 典亞藝博2015 054-055

Art Travelling + Work
A Diary of Setup Work in Water and Land Niigata Art Festival 2015 in Japan
藝術旅行+工作LONG STAY
2015日本新潟水土藝術祭佈展隨行記 056-058

reviews/
Yeung Yang: ‘Retrospection for the future' 060-061

Pan Gaojie: ‘Reflection: Hong Hao's Solo Exhibition’ 062-063

Chi-wen Tu: ‘Coming Full Circle: Peng Wei Solo Exhibition’ 064

Hui-Wen Cheng: ‘Beyond the Borderline: Exiles from the Native
Land’ 065

Liu Xiyan: ‘Ai Weiwei's Beijing Actions’ 066-067

Zhang Linmiao: ‘William Kentridge in China’ 068-069

Bonny Yau: ‘What's Left to Appear?’ 070-071

Bonny Yau: ‘A Round Sun, a Dot’ 072

Tiffany Chae: ‘Seeking Freedom through Metamorphosis of the Self’ 073

Frank Vigneron: ‘About Shigeyuki Kihara’ 074-075

spot-landed/ 076-083
articles in Chinese/ 084-102


a.m. post │ issue 116  Sep./ Oct. 2015  編者語 editorial

Every City Needs Good Art Fairs/每個城市都需要好的藝博會

(text by Anthea Fan, Editor-in-Chief,文/ 樊婉貞)

下半年的藝博會季節及拍賣會逐漸展開,典亞藝博(Asia Fine Art)、水墨當代藝術博會(Ink Art Asia)、亞洲當代藝術展覽(Asia Contemporary Art Show Hong Kong)以及包括中國嘉德、蘇富比、邦瀚斯、佳士得、羅芙奧等超過十場的拍賣會。收藏家蠢蠢欲動,該去哪一場拍賣會、哪一場藝博會,若不悉心計算,很快預算就會超過荷包所負擔。

算算今年上半年在香港舉辦的藝博會:巴塞爾藝術展(Art Basel Hong Kong)、中心藝術博覽會(Art Central)、於香港港麗酒店舉辦的亞洲當代藝術展覽(Asia Contemporary Art Show Hong Kong)、馬哥孛羅香港酒店舉辦的亞洲酒店藝術博覽會(Asia Hotel Art Fair Hong Kong)及Art Edition、買得起藝術博覽會(Affordable Art Fair)等起碼六個。香港藝術真的需要這麼多的博覽會嗎?其實,近年來在香港來了又消失的藝博會也很多。上世紀九十年代開始大多以城市為主做收藏家經營的畫廊,蓬勃的藝博會確實讓經營面向多元化,多了國際買家,甚至會在各地開設分店以服務他們。近年,國際級的畫廊開卻始慎選參加藝博會,他們前瞻進入最頂極的博覽會,相對頂級藝博會及買家也靜靜地觀望畫廊是否保持最好的履歷。換言之,沒有太高審閱標準的酒店藝博,常常是有質素的畫廊躊躇不參加的原因。

說到底,無論哪一種蓬勃的市場及行業,汰舊換新或是去蕪存菁時,淘汰的就是「內容」及「質量」同質性高、削價以及沒有門檻的貨品,藝博會亦是、雜誌亦是。

藝博會的發展,開始進入兩種類型,一種是「收藏」級的客人,一種是「買得起」的客人。收藏級的客人一般被稱為「嚴肅買家」,他們會有自己的收藏方向、或是願意參考畫廊老闆的建議,通常有如藏家與藝術顧問的關係,這類買家收藏有系統及年代,被收藏的藝術家相對也被視以被美術館收藏一樣,作品得到保值與聲譽提高。美術館邀請藏家做收藏展的越來越多,藏家猶如策展人開始在美術殿堂為他的藏品加值,或者捐贈作品給美術館,或者成為某一個時代藝術發展的重要藏品建立者。在拍賣市場上,若主題展來自哪一個家族的藏品,她亦有如來自皇族的收藏一樣重要。

「買得起」等級的收藏者,一般都是藝術愛好者。「買得起藝術博覽會」以城市做市場分隔,畫廊較以本地為主、不誇張國際的參與。其行銷策略既直接又簡潔,「把作品帶回家」(亦即,換掉你的贗品或海報),藝術家作品幫你做居家裝修,雖然淺白低階但展覽內容確實就是為一群不懂藝術的客戶服務,無須高檔。我們不可否認買回去的作品創作者都可稱為「藝術家」,但掃除假畫市場、幫助年輕藝術家以及提供潛力收藏家一個起步的機會,機會可能也是那十年後從五萬變成五十萬的作品投資,不欺客也不自抬身價。較有規模的買得起藝博會,吸引很多是一般大眾、經商駐港的外派人員及中產階級的買家,最重要的是它仍有適當的展覽平台,如展覽場。

反言之,酒店博覽雖掛名讓大家在優雅的酒店環境裡購畫,事實上不設門檻,大多只為圖利的主辦者,畫廊質素不一一律照收。酒店博覽說穿了就是藝術超市,很多畫廊還是必須自己邀請藏家,藏家於此洗牌,畫廊也互相受益。但觀眾疲憊於數層、數十間,質素實在良莠不齊的展覽很容易顯得喪氣。有多少國際畫廊參與、有多少國家的代表,酒店博覽的公關宣傳嘗試與國際藝博相較量,反倒顯得相形見絀。

市場,指的是營商環境包括境內境外的稅制、國際級水準的行政支援、銜接鄰近城市商機的重要平台,還有藏家。許多無法國際化的城市,若擁有重要的藏家群如台灣及東南亞城市之首的新加坡,加上政府的支持及畫廊生態的需求,城市還是需要一個代表性的藝博會。仍在被觀看的市場如澳門、中國二線城市或是東南亞,若真的要建立一個藝博會,「內容」是唯一一條路,有好的畫廊?或是有極好的藝術家?至於「市場」包括買方及賣方則有待城市整個生態圈及與鄰近藝博會互相聯結與支持方可找到出路。

Art fair season and auctions in the second half of the year will kick off soon. There are Asia Fine Art, Ink Art Asia, Asia Contemporary Art Show Hong Kong and more than ten auctions by China Guardian, Sotheby’s, Bonhams, Christie’s, Ravenel and etc. Collectors need to plan carefully which one to go to and what to purchase or they would spend more than their budgets.

 

Amongst the art fair in the first half of the year, there were at least six in Art Basel Hong Kong, Art Central, Asia Contemporary Art Show Hong Kong at Conrad Hong Kong, Asia Hotel Art Fair Hong Kong at Marco Polo Hongkong Hotel, Art Edition and Affordable Art Fair. Does Hong Kong really need this many art fairs? In fact, many art fairs come and go in recent years in Hong Kong. Since the 1990s, many galleries targeted collectors with a city-based approach. The blooming art fair scene has added multiplicity in their operation. With the increasing number of international buyers, many galleries chose to set up branches to serve them. In recent years, world-class galleries are being selective of art fairs and only target the highest level. On the other hand, the top-class art fairs and buyers would monitor the performances of galleries. Therefore, many galleries would not take part in hotel art fairs whose thresholds are relatively love.

 

After all, when any blooming industry replaces the old with something new, what is being eliminated are the repetitive ones in contents and quality, those on offer with a bargain and goods without threshold. The same theory goes for art fairs and magazines.

 

Art fairs have developed into two types. One is for the collector level. One is for the affordable level. The collector level are those ‘serious buyers’. They have their own direction of collecting or are willing to listen to gallerists’ advices. Gallerists are like art consultants for collectors. This type of buyers are systemic. The artists whose works are collected are like having works collected by an art museum. Value of work is guaranteed and reputation is raised. There is an increasing number of art museums that invite collectors to put up collection exhibitions. Collectors start to act as curators to add value to their work in art museums, or to donate works to art museums, or to establish themselves as the founder of an era of art collection. In the auction market, an exhibition showing the collection of a particular family would be as important as a royal collection.

 

In general, the affordable level collectors are art lovers. The affordable category of art fairs are city-based. Many galleries are local instead of emphasising international participation. The sales tactic is direct and minimal, namely ‘bring it home’ (or to say replace the forgeries or posters). Artists decorates home for you. Though superficial, these fairs are there for the group of customers who do not know art. We cannot deny the fact that those who create works for these occasions are artist. In addition to removing the forgery market, helping young artists and providing a platform for collectors with potentials, these fairs are also honest opportunities of artwork investment. The bigger affordable art fairs attract the general public, people who stop by Hong Kong for business or other work reasons and middle class buyers. The most important thing is that these fairs provide appropriate exhibition platforms, such as exhibition venues.

 

On the contrary, the hotel art fairs let people buy art in an elegant environment but set no threshold. Most are merely money-driven organisers. Discrepancies in galleries’ quality do not matter. Honestly, hotel art fairs are art supermarkets. Many galleries have to invite collectors themselves. The shuffling of collectors allows galleries to benefit from each other’s work. But viewers would be tired of travelling between floors and frustrated by rooms and the varying quality of galleries.

 

‘Market’ refers to the business environment that includes taxes, world-class administrative support, business opportunities in adjacent cities and collectors. Many cities that cannot be international still need an iconic art fair even though there are important collector circles like those in Taiwan or Singapore the leader in South East Asia as well as the governments’ support and gallery ecology. For the markets being observed like Macau, second-tier cities in China or South East Asia to establish an art fair, ‘content’ is the only way out. Perhaps good galleries? Maybe some excellent artists? The market, both buyers and sellers, depends on the linkage between the entire city’s ecology and art fairs of adjacent cities to fine that way out.